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Understanding Xerostomia: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Medications, and Prognosis

Dr. Craig Smith, MD

4 Min read

Xerostomia, commonly known as dry mouth, is a condition characterized by insufficient saliva production, resulting in discomfort and difficulty in swallowing and speaking. While it may seem like a minor inconvenience, xerostomia can significantly impact an individual's quality of life and oral health. In this article, we'll explore the symptoms, causes, treatment options, medications, and prognosis associated with xerostomia.


Symptoms of Xerostomia:

The symptoms of xerostomia extend beyond just dryness in the mouth. Individuals may experience:


  • Persistent dryness in the mouth, often described as a cotton-like sensation.

  • Difficulty in chewing and swallowing food, leading to discomfort and malnutrition.

  • Speech difficulties, including hoarseness or difficulty articulating words.

  • Sore throat and throat irritation due to lack of lubrication.

  • Persistent bad breath (halitosis) due to reduced saliva's cleansing action.

  • Dry, cracked lips and corners of the mouth.

  • Changes in taste sensation, such as a metallic or bitter taste.

  • Difficulty wearing dentures or oral appliances due to inadequate saliva for retention.

These symptoms can vary in severity and may worsen over time if left untreated. Additionally, xerostomia increases the risk of dental issues such as cavities, gum disease, and oral infections.


Causes of Xerostomia:

Several factors can contribute to the development of xerostomia, including:


  • Medications: Many commonly prescribed medications can cause dry mouth as a side effect. These include antihistamines, decongestants, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and medications for high blood pressure and Parkinson's disease.

  • Medical Conditions: Certain medical conditions can affect salivary gland function, leading to xerostomia. These include Sj√∂gren's syndrome, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease.

  • Radiation Therapy: Individuals undergoing radiation therapy for head and neck cancer may experience damage to the salivary glands, resulting in decreased saliva production.

  • Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy drugs can affect saliva production, leading to temporary or permanent xerostomia.

  • Nerve Damage: Trauma or surgery to the head and neck area can damage nerves responsible for saliva production, resulting in dry mouth.

  • Dehydration: Inadequate fluid intake or conditions that cause excessive fluid loss, such as vomiting or diarrhea, can contribute to dry mouth.

  • Lifestyle Factors: Smoking or chewing tobacco can reduce saliva production and exacerbate dry mouth symptoms.

Treatment of Xerostomia:

The treatment of xerostomia aims to alleviate symptoms, prevent complications, and improve oral health. Treatment options may include:


  • Saliva Substitutes: Over-the-counter saliva substitutes or artificial saliva products can help moisturize the mouth and provide temporary relief from dryness.

  • Oral Hygiene: Practicing good oral hygiene habits such as regular brushing, flossing, and using fluoride toothpaste can help prevent dental issues associated with dry mouth.

  • Hydration: Drinking plenty of water throughout the day can help maintain moisture in the mouth and alleviate dry mouth symptoms.

  • Sugar-Free Gum or Candy: Chewing sugar-free gum or sucking on sugar-free candy can stimulate saliva production and relieve dry mouth temporarily.

  • Medication Adjustment: In some cases, healthcare providers may adjust or change medications that contribute to dry mouth symptoms.

  • Salivary Stimulants: Prescription medications such as pilocarpine and cevimeline can help stimulate saliva production in individuals with xerostomia.

  • Moisturizing Oral Products: Using moisturizing mouth rinses, gels, or sprays can help alleviate dry mouth symptoms and protect oral tissues.

Medications for Xerostomia:

In addition to salivary stimulants like pilocarpine and cevimeline, other medications may be prescribed to manage xerostomia:


  • Artificial Saliva Preparations: These products mimic the composition of natural saliva and help alleviate dry mouth symptoms.

  • Mouth Moisturizers: Topical agents such as gels, sprays, and mouthwashes can provide relief from dry mouth discomfort.

  • Anti-inflammatory Medications: Corticosteroids may be prescribed to reduce inflammation in the salivary glands and improve saliva production.

  • Salivary Substitutes: These products contain mucin-like substances that enhance oral lubrication and provide long-lasting relief from dry mouth symptoms.

Prognosis of Xerostomia:

The prognosis for individuals with xerostomia depends on the underlying cause, severity of symptoms, and effectiveness of treatment. For individuals with medication-induced xerostomia, symptoms may improve once the offending medication is adjusted or discontinued. However, for those with chronic conditions or irreversible damage to the salivary glands, managing xerostomia may be an ongoing challenge. Without proper management, xerostomia can lead to complications such as dental decay, gum disease, oral infections, and difficulty eating and speaking. Therefore, early diagnosis and proactive treatment are essential for minimizing the impact of dry mouth on an individual's oral health and overall well-being.


In conclusion, xerostomia is a common condition with various causes and manifestations. By understanding its symptoms, causes, treatment options, medications, and prognosis, individuals can take proactive steps to manage this condition effectively and improve their quality of life.

About the Author

In 1984, Dr. Craig Smith founded Lifesource. As a coach, he's worked with world-class athletes and guided thousands towards successful weight loss. Driven by a desire to elevate his understanding of the human body, he returned to the rigors of medical school in his 50s, achieving his goal of becoming a physician at 56. Now in his 60s, Dr. Smith leads by personal example, continuing to inspire, educate and empower individuals from all walks of life to achieve their health and fitness goals. If you wish to train and diet online with Dr. Smith, hear his message and schedule a 45-minute consultation on the New You page.